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县级博物馆建设与未来发展分析探讨

2012-09-11 21:13:00

 来源:《商品与质量》杂志2012第6期 国际刊号:ISSN1006-656X      黄新强        

       博物馆是历史的长廊,是保护、研究和展示传统文化非营利的组织机构,在文化传播及推动文化的发展过程中发挥着重要作用。一座城市的博物馆,就像一个家庭的族谱,她是后人通过博物馆里的每一件藏品,透过漫长的历史长廊,领略这做城市的历史精髓,提升城市古文化的厚重感。但对县级博物馆来说,由于设施简陋,经费短缺,造成藏品收藏不足;同时在安全服务和网络管理上也存在着诸多瓶颈,特别是在现代科学技术高速发展的今天,县级博物馆还有着许多不足和欠缺,与国际接轨的距离相差甚远。为弘扬传统文化,推动博物馆事业发展,对县级博物馆进行整体分析后提出了一些具有针对性的和对策性的建议。

一、博物馆对人类的重要性及罗源馆发展现状简介

       社会在进步,社会在发展。造建博物馆的目的就是让后人记住历史,了解历史;当前,我国大力推进传统文化建设,作为社会主义文化建设重要组成部分的博物馆,就是对我国历史上一切优秀文化元素的高度概括。因其在文物收藏和保护中的重要作用,也承担着对子孙后代进行传统文化的教育作用。

       博物馆是传播历史知识和传统文化的特殊媒介。博物馆利用文物组成的体系特征对不同类型和不同主题的文物进行科学分类,利用直观、形象、具体的特点,真实、直接、生动的感染力和说服力,予以体系性的陈列展示。对广大参观者进行历史知识的教育、文化传统的教育、爱国主义的教育等。博物馆在通过展品的展示达到了继承和弘扬优秀传统文化的重要作用,这对后人科学的、全面的价值观形成起着重要作用。在社会主义市场经济快速发展的今天,博物馆的作用显得尤为重要。

       罗源县博物馆在发展过程中面临着诸多的困难,主要体现在:

       第一、建馆时间比较晚,这几年在有关部们的重视和支持下得到了一定程度上的发展,但就总体而言,还存在资金投入不足、发展滞后的现实问题。如:馆内的陈列规模较小,藏品种类不丰富,珍贵历史文物那是少之又少。

       第二、我馆在运营及管理过程中也存在薄弱环节,博物馆鉴于管理的高要求性,管理费用在营用费用中所占比例较大,馆中收藏物品不能得到科学合理的补充和完善,具体表现在:
      1、没有足够的经费来支付文物征集的费用
      2、流落在民间文物比较少,加之收藏之风盛行,可征集文物的渠道也愈来愈少。

       第三、众观我县博物馆现状,与大中型城市有着不可回避的欠缺,这在博物馆专业管理及研究人才的吸纳过程中面临诸多障碍。专业人才的缺乏直接影响了博物馆“新鲜血液”的注入,在博物馆藏品的宣传上、藏品衍生品的开发上、博物馆主题文化的打造上和现代科技的应用上等都限制了博物馆的长远发展。

二、世界博物馆发展趋势及我馆与之存在的差距分析

       新陈代谢、吐布纳新是社会发展的自然规律。博物馆的发展也得摆脱那种一朝成馆,终身不变的模式,尤其是伴着科学技术飞速发展的今天,博物馆也应充分利用现代科学的技术和力量,让科技元素不断融入到博物馆中来,让流传万古的文物不再呆静和神秘。走进博物馆,观众不仅可以见其形,甚至可以闻其声;一些历史文物通过高科技手段,不仅可以看到它的过去,还可以看到它的未来;对一些历史事件,我们通过音频视频的回放,让历史“再现”,这样就可以让浏览者积极主动地参与其中。在观、学、思、动中加深对观赏物品的理解和认识。总之,博物馆在社会的发展过程中愈来愈走向现代化,愈来愈注重参观人员的参与性,现代式的博物馆正向着一个融消遣、享受这一趋势相契合。

       对比可见,罗源馆与之存在的差距是显而易见的。目前,我馆还采用传统的管理方法,展品上作一个卡片式的说明和指示,基本上是让参观者自己进行视觉浏览,观众不能自己动手,不能参与。虽然也配置了讲解员,但讲解员的讲解也是众口一词,千人同调,参观者只能被动地接受。不能将观众的视觉、听觉、触觉充分地调动起来。这样的博物馆对参观者而言没有新鲜感,人们缺少积极的参与性和高昂热情。

       对比借鉴中我们发现,县级博物馆在现代社会中,要想谋得长远发展。就必须加大科学技术的利用,让高科学技术成为推动博物馆发展的重要力量。对一些具有镇馆之宝级别较高的文献进行高科技的深度开发,专门录制音频视频资料,甚至运用3D现代技术,让参观者在参观过程中有一种如临其境的视觉享受。另外,文物的讲解与说明要符合时代的特征与要求,在讲解词的设置上尽可能地撰写几个不同的版本,针对不同的参观群体采用不同的讲解词,这也是一个适应现代化多样性需要的选择手段之一。

       综上所述,在社会活动中,博物馆的发展要更具现代性和观赏性,科学技术的融入和人们需求的多样化使得博物馆的发展面临着更多的机遇,同时也面临着更多的挑战,对县级博物馆而言,挑战更为严峻。在这一趋势下,我馆也得充分利用科学技术手段推进我馆的发展,数字化技术、多媒体技术已成必然,如果固守传统模式,将不得不面临落后甚至被淘汰的危险。

三、我馆现实发展策略选择探讨

        博物馆是传递文化的一个重要载体,博物馆事业的繁荣是社会公益事业兴旺发达的一个重要标志。如何让县级博物在传统文化大发展、大繁荣的今天,更好的、更健康的服务于人们,这是一个文物工作者所应关注和思考的问题

       第一,政府是文化建设的组织者和实践者。政府要起到政策引导作用,加大对博物馆发展的重视。县级博物的发展,资金支持是关键,博物馆突破性的发展必须得到政府资金的支持。尤其是对刚刚成立不久,发展不完备的罗源博物馆来说更是如此。另外政府也要在文物物品的征集及回收上给予鼓励,对那些在文物征集回收中做出表率和做出突出贡献的人员给予物质和精神层面的奖励,形成一个文物回收的良效机制。这样才能保证博物馆长期久远的发展。

       第二,博物馆的内外建设要凸显主题化、特色化
       在博物馆的建设与发展中,可能会面临着这样的矛盾,那就是博物馆有限的面积与众多的展示内容,往往在建设中存在冲突。其实每一个博物馆都不可能做到面面俱到,样样俱全,尤其是对县一级的博物馆而言,更是如此。县级博物馆的发展最为关键的是要确立自己的主题,如:以红色经典为主题的,以古代商业发展为主题的,以古生物化石为主题的,以现代科学动漫为主题的等等。

       第三,加强科技投入和馆际之间的交流与沟通
       完善博物馆内部局域网管理,改善博物馆内部的软环境建设。科学技术的投入已成为博物馆发展的必然选择,一方面增强了博物馆的吸引力,让更多的观众愿意到博物馆来参观;另一方面,管理手段的升级还会降低博物馆日常经费的支出。现代社会的迅速发展使博物馆所处的社会环境不断变化,拓展对外交流、丰富文物种类,是博物馆全球化事业发展的必然趋势。社会对博物馆的期望越来越高,馆际间交流的展品不断更新,形成相互流动的运作模式。

       第四,博物馆要树立“以人为本”的观念,把满足社会和观众的需求作为博物馆工作的出发点和办馆宗旨。要以“贴近群众、贴近生活、贴近实际”的指导思想为主线,要以不同民族的衣、食、住、行,以及本地区的历史人物、历史实物陈列为主题,设计上必须:从灯光上的调节、展柜里的造型、讲解员的语调语速、新颖的参观路线等等,营造一个与内容相适应的特定气氛,令观众一走进展室就有身临其境之感,触景生情,从中接受教育。总之就是要让博物馆成为人们了解历史、认识历史和学习历史的知识殿堂,成为人们生活中不可或缺的一部分。成旧、简陋 ,缺乏与外界交流的、陈列展示功能极差的、文物极少的这种现象到了应要彻底改变的时候了。

 

County museum building and the future development of
Analysis and Discussion

        Museum is a historical promenade, is conservation, research and display of traditional cultural non-profit organization, in cultural transmission and promote the development of culture plays an important role. Museum of a city, like a family genealogy, she was later through the museum every collection, through the long history of the promenade, enjoy the essence of this city to make history, to enhance the sense of the city's ancient culture thick. But the county museum, because the poor facilities, shortage of funds, resulting in inadequate collections collections; while in the security services and network management there are many bottlenecks, especially in the rapid development of modern science and technology of today, there is a county museum Many shortcomings and lack of international standards and the distance far. To carry forward the traditional culture, promote the development of museums, a holistic approach to the county museum after some suggestions and countermeasures targeted nature.

       First, the museum of the importance of human development status and
Luoyuan Museum Introduction

       Social progress and social development. Made to build the museum's purpose is to allow future generations to remember history, to understand the history; present, China vigorously promote the traditional culture, as the building of socialist culture an important part of the museum, is the height of all the outstanding cultural elements summarized in our history. Because of its important role in the collection and protection of cultural relics, but also bear on future generations were the role of traditional culture and education.
 
       The museum is a special medium of dissemination of knowledge and traditional culture. System features museum artifacts consisting of the use of different types and different themes of cultural scientific classification, the use of visual image, the specific features of the real, direct, vivid and persuasive appeal, to be displayed on the system properties. The majority of visitors were educational, cultural traditional historical knowledge of education, patriotism education. Museum exhibits showing by reaching inherit and carry forward the fine traditional culture of the important role, which plays an important role in scientific and comprehensive values ​​descendants form. In the rapid development of the socialist market economy today, the role of museums is particularly important.

 Luoyuan County Museum is facing many difficulties in the development
process, mainly reflected in:

       First, build a museum relatively late, in recent years in the relevant section of their attention and support have been developed to a certain extent, but overall, there is insufficient capital investment, development lags behind reality. Such as: the size of the museum's small display, holding species is not abundant, it is extremely rare precious historical relics.
       Second, the library in the operation and management process, there are weaknesses in the management of the museum in view of the high demand, management fees in the camp with a larger proportion of the costs, the museum collection of items can not be scientifically reasonable complement and complete, Specific features:
      1, there is not enough money to pay for the costs of collecting artifacts
      2, living less in folk artifacts, plus collection of vogue, channels can also collect artifacts less and less.
       Third, the public view of the status of the county museum, and medium-sized cities has unavoidable lack, which face many obstacles in the museum professional management and research personnel to absorb the process. Lack of professionals directly affect the museum "fresh blood" of injection, in museum collections of publicity, the development of collections of derivatives, the museum to build on the theme of culture and the application of modern science and technology and so limit the long-term development of the museum.

Second, the gap between the world development trend of museums and
museum with my analysis of the existence of

       Metabolism, spit Buena new is the natural law of social development. Development of the museum have to get rid of that once a museum, life-long patterns, especially accompanied by the rapid development of science and technology today, the museum also should make full use of modern science and technology and strength, so technology elements continue into the museum Come, let spread eternal heritage no longer stay quiet and mysterious. Entering the museum, visitors can not only reflected in its shape, and even heard his voice; some historical relics through high-tech means, not only can see it in the past, you can see it in the future; for some historical events, we Audio Video playback, let history "reproduction", which would allow viewers to actively participate in them. In concept, learning, thinking, moving in to deepen the understanding and awareness of ornamental items. In short, the museum in the process of social development more toward modernization, more and more emphasis on visiting staff participation, the modern style of the museum is toward a financial pastime, enjoying this trend fit.
       Comparison showed gaps exist with luoyuan Museum is obvious. Currently, the library also uses traditional management methods, as a card-on exhibits Indication basically visual browsing visitors themselves, the audience can not do it yourself, you can not participate. Although the configuration of the guide, but also a unanimous explain instructors, thousands of homology, visitors can only passively accept. You can not be the audience's visual, auditory, tactile fully mobilized. Such a museum to visitors in terms of no novelty, lack of active participation of the people and the high enthusiasm.
       Reference in contrast, we found that the county museum in modern society, to finding a long-term development. It must increase the use of science and technology, so that high science and technology has become an important force to promote the development of the museum. For some depth to develop a higher level of literature's greatest treasures tech, specialized record audio and video data, using even modern 3D technology, visitors will have an immersive visual experience during the visit. In addition, the cultural explanations and instructions to meet the characteristics and requirements of the times, in the setting as much as possible to explain the words to write several different versions, using different words to explain the different tour groups, which is an adaptation of the diversity of the needs of modern Choose one means.
       In summary, social activities, the development of the museum to be more modern and ornamental, science and technology and diversification into the needs of the people makes the development of the museum is facing more opportunities, but also face more challenges for the county museum, the challenge is even greater. In this trend, the library also have full use of science and technology to promote the development of our library, digital technology, multimedia technology has become an inevitable, if stick to the traditional model, will have to face the danger of being eliminated even behind.

Third, our library Selection of realistic development strategies

        The museum is to pass an important carrier of culture, museums and prosperity is an important indicator of social welfare prosperity. How to make the county museum in the traditional cultural development and prosperity of today, more and more health services to people that this is a cultural workers should focus on and think about
       First, the government is the cultural construction of the organizers and practitioners. Government policy should play a leading role, increase the importance of museum development. County Museum of development, financial support is the key breakthrough in the development of the museum must be supported by government funds. In particular, especially for newly established development Luoyuan museum is incomplete. Also, the Government should also be given on the collection and recovery of cultural goods encouragement, and to set an example for those who have made outstanding contributions to the recovery of artifacts collection to give material and spiritual rewards, forming a cultural good effect recovery mechanism. So as to ensure long-term old museum development.
       Second, both inside and outside the museum building to highlight the theme, features
       In the construction and development of the museum, we may be faced with such a dilemma, it is limited to the area of ​​the museum display the contents of many, often conflicting in construction. In fact, every museum can not do everything, taste everything, especially the county-level museum is particularly true. Development of the county museum is the most crucial thing is to establish its own theme, such as: red classic theme to the ancient commercial development as the theme to the theme of fossils to modern science-themed anime and so on.
 
       Third, strengthen exchanges and communication science and technology between the input and interlibrary
       Improve internal LAN museum management, improve the soft environment construction inside the museum. Investment in science and technology has become an inevitable choice for the development of the museum, on the one hand to enhance the attractiveness of the museum, so that more viewers are willing to come to visit the museum; on the other hand, management tools upgrade will reduce daily expenses museum funds. The rapid development of modern society to make the museum a changing social environment, expand foreign exchange, rich heritage species, globalization is an inevitable trend in the development of the museum. Society's expectations of increasing museum, interlibrary exchange among the exhibits constantly updated, form a mutual flow mode of operation.
 
       Fourth, the museum to establish a "people-oriented" concept, to meet the needs of society and the audience as the starting point of the museum shop and office purposes. To "close to the people, life, and the reality," the guiding ideology of the main line, to different ethnic clothing, food, housing, transportation, as well as the region's historical figures, history of physical display as the theme, the design must: from light adjusted on Showcase shape, tone instructors Speed, innovative tour route, etc., to create a special atmosphere and to adapt the content, the audience entered the galleries have a sense of immersive, recalling the tragic, from education. In short, it is to make people understand the museum become history, understanding history and learn the history of knowledge and learning, to become an integral part of people's lives. Into the old, poor, lack of communication with the outside world, the function displayed on poor, little cultural phenomenon to be to completely change the time.
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