来源：《神州》杂志2012年05期 国际刊号：ISSN1009-5071 黄新强
To build a bridge between the museum and visitors
Chance to see the museum in the recruitment of instructors, graduate degree requirements. Ability to measure museum instructors in the end is what? Is it high academic ability mean another job? Instructors name suggests, "talk" is able to take advantage of the Museum of the dissemination of historical knowledge and traditional cultural special media, the museum itself contains blend of cultural connotation and collections of precious objects or historical data tell visitors to listen to; the "solution" of the Museum guide through their own personal cultural training and cultural insights of the museum, so that visitors can guide the "solution" so that the special value of the museum presented before the tourists seem more real, direct, vivid and appealing convincing. What really matters is not so instructors must have a graduate degree, of course, we do not deny the instructors have a considerable degree, such as graduate; the best is the ability to literature and history graduate but communication between instructors interact with visitors .
Many museums also uses the traditional method, as a card-on exhibits Indication basically visitors themselves visually by browsing, visitors can not do it yourself, you can not participate. Especially the instructors explain unanimous, thousands of homology, visitors can only passively accept. Tourists can not be visual, auditory, tactile fully mobilized. Thus no interaction to visitors in terms of lack of novelty, lack of active participation of the people and the high enthusiasm.
How to form and enhance interaction between instructors and visitors to do?
A dedication to service is the foundation
To establish a sense guide services for tourists, who have a thousand faces, based on their own different qualities, different people to the museum, they have a different perception of feelings and psychological experience, but no matter what kind of tourists, he came to the museum purpose mind must have the common point - by museum of historical relics of ancient and modern feel. Only do so instructors and dedicated services for tourists, to "sincere heart", "smiling face", "wash hands", the reason why tourists anxious urgency, the tourists would like to think, we will be able to resolve for some objective reasons misunderstanding or extreme emotions, so that interaction between instructors and tourists toward the direction of the sound and harmonious development.
Engaged on the service, the mission must perform their duties to the concrete implementation of all aspects of the daily, the details, the implementation details of the winning behavior norms. Instructors not only have clear objectives, specific measures and action plans, and also attaches great importance to and grasp every detail to explain every detail of the work to do so thoroughly, operate on the basis of strict, made standardization, artistic, explain to reflect the artistic level and quality of service of a museum. For this reason, instructors must do heart to your eyes, mouth, hand to: heart to heart that is filled with tourists, tourists want are thinking, be anxious visitors, the there is a strong desire to accomplish the task and responsibility to explain . That your eyes observant, to find, if the behavior of tourists inconvenience or special needs or exhibition showcasing some details of the work and deficiencies, if you turn a blind eye, you're not to the eye. Tourists mouth according to the site, select the person applying targeted speak, we can talk about the contents of Shi Shi-speaking tourists visiting the demand expression and aesthetic emotion harmony. That applied hand to talk standing, posture, gestures and non-verbal behavior to achieve the best results with the place. This four runs through the entire process to explain the service and guide service effectiveness is closely related only to implement every detail in order to explain the details of the artistic highlights of charm.
Second, as a bridge attracted tourists
Museum guide the tasks of education is to make the museum features specific to explain is a special art, which requires a comprehensive guide a firm ideological quality, and political quality, elegant appearance, and elegant artistic accomplishments. Museum work is a guide to explain the arrangement of the museum system, instructors explain the level of direct impact on the museum's image in the eyes of tourists, affecting the social status of the museum, the work related to the future success of instructors and museum development . Instructors bear the museum is responsible for the reception to explain the task, directly facing the tourists, his movements are representative of the image of the museum staff, but also the impact of visitors on the museum of historical relics support this special recognition. Between the tourist guide and museum as a bridge, by explaining instructors into the museum allows visitors to love, guide allows visitors to explain the wonderful "eye-catching" and found that there are many museums he is interested in history heritage or traditional culture, growth and development are inseparable from the people anything, as a bridge, allowing visitors into the museum willing, the only way to better interaction between visitors and produce.
Museum to explain the work, mainly in the pre-preparation process to explain, the process applied stresses, the feedback effect on the flow of the three links, both formed a mutual contact, and differ from each other in numerous details, constitutes an organic whole working closely linked and Explanation .
First of all, do thorough explanation ready. Ready to explain mainly in preparation and routine preparations for a regular two aspects: namely former explain the expertise to explain the business skills, Mr Chan and explain the words of proficiency, tourists consulting knowledge base and courtesy training, etc; routine That show ready to open, service, facilities, service, project management and explain the equipment, receive visitors and explain the task of communication, dress codes and standards of conduct and mental state of adjustment of various elements of the preparation.
Second, grasp elegant explanation deduction. Explain the dissemination of information with sound Second Creation, it taste, and aesthetic appeal tourists as objects, instructors have mastered the knowledge of sorting, processing and refining, in plain language and then create a mood. The performance of the main recipients of knowledge - knowledge re-creation - the creation of a further spread the knowledge - into the process of a new body. That instructors "talk" with visitors "hear" and "see" constitute the basic explanation of the process. Both from tourists and visitors to lead the organization, Shi speak content and communication method setting discretionary, unveiled a code of conduct and civilized language and other aspects of the demonstration, the details, are directly related to the effect of visiting tourists. Therefore, instructors should be adept language arts, originally written to explain the formula was adjusted to spoken word, through correct, clear, vivid and flexible facilities to speak, to narrow the distance with visitors; should be adept at the language situation, mobilize the attention of visitors seeking an emotional resonance; to be good "because people speak Shi", adjust explain the content hierarchy for different groups of tourists, method and time schedule, learn to "margin was the occasion", "with the people and change", because tourists from different regions, different occupations, different ages and different levels of knowledge, we must guide the visitors to the different characteristics, creating the scenario to explain the word to increase the suspense, with wonderful stories to bridge the gap between tourists and historical relics. Guide visitors to observe the face and eyes, according to his level of interest, expand, reduce; for different visitors, using different tone, for example, the face of the experts, is more focused on the facts, face the children, they have to tell more interesting The little story. Sometimes, in line with tourists psychological word, blunt than one hundred words to explain. And visitors to establish a "the person applying stresses" the equal and harmonious relations are very important and must not be ignored.
Again, pay attention to explain the effect of the feedback. From time to explain, the visitors perception, imagination, emotion, thinking at ZhanChen attract and guide the guide, soon to be activated in a particular visit environment into aesthetic contemplation heritage of the specimen and a typical environment, ornamental and aesthetic appreciation to explain, among taste. Explain the effect of the feedback mainly reflected in consultation analysis, observation strain, ending the assessment of many aspects, it reveals the practical effect of tourist attendance. Shi speak in everyday operation, visitors often directly from verbal criticism or praise by the majority. From the Museum of standardized management, the best fixed tabular form or other written feedback as well. Such highly conducive summary tourist information resources, analysis, research and refining development to enhance a new level on the service in the continuous improvement of work shortage.
Three times to learn new knowledge
Why do some people visited the museum once, back on the second no, do visitors really will be able to one day for thousands of years in the museum precipitated everything read it? No, but to explain the guide is not in place into a museum so that visitors passer, this is only a one-time visit is clearly a failure. Era in the development, things are changing every day, the instructors explain the term must not always speak with one voice, always pick up. Oral sex is a museum to explain the re-creation activities museum artifacts. Explain the success depends on the instructors for the story implied historical heritage, cultural and behind the overall grasp. The same piece of heritage, to explain the effect of different instructors may be completely different. Some instructors may be ancient and strange exhibits inject some new elements, to fully mobilize the appetite of tourists, to get visitors to interact with the success of the repair guide itself must advance with the times, because each display from form and content are rich in content, every artifact has its specific source and distant historical background, the instructors must not only familiar to every thing, but also a wealth of knowledge acquired, so it is necessary to become expert type guide, study artifacts, historical research study various museums, but also a "hybrid home" ability to continue to learn new knowledge, there are eloquent, able to master several foreign languages, which is actually more than the level of a graduate? Such a reference is too high, know the customs of the country, to understand trends in today's advances in science and technology, to understand today's social consciousness of mainstream philosophy, understand the concept of environmental protection. Guide for what you want to explain the cultural or historical information, etc. If you can use a wealth of theoretical and vivid language to interpret, so that visitors to resonate, which enables visitors to have received in the emotional value of interactive, enables visitors to tour museum feel very rewarding to assist visitors need to achieve self-improvement. When this museum visitors to become repeat customers, it is possible he will become a supernumerary instructors.
Instructors should not only possess the necessary professional knowledge and artistic accomplishment, including the form of works of art, architecture, language features, sensibility and a certain styles of aesthetic experience, but also to explain the use of certain skills. Explain the process, instructors should be aware of the exhibits and the author's style, characteristics, to be able to understand spoken exhibits. If the instructors know the merits of the exhibits themselves are talking about, it will become "blind stresses", explain the content like a glass of water, dull.
Such as painting and calligraphy exhibits explain, instructors must be some art training. Learn age and personal style works. Each painter because of personal life experiences, artistic accomplishment, emotional tendencies, different aesthetic ideal, economic conditions and other aspects, as well as the use of tools and the use of different words used to, is reflected in the works will inevitably lead to a different style. Personal style will also be different, aesthetics ethnic and class affect their time and their life together and aesthetic needs, thus showing consistency of style. You can explain the painting from the author and the style of the times start to the screen ink, composition, lines, colors, inscriptions to resolve, combined with stories and anecdotes the author behind the exhibits, by covering a variety of angles, so painting Exhibits become more vivid, painting and calligraphy exhibition allows visitors to feel not so hard to understand. Another example to explain the porcelain works of art, instructors should seize the first impression visitors from color talk, and then the tattoo, shape, kilns, age characteristics and uses and production processes. Each piece of fine porcelain exhibit exudes trickling strong artistic taste, instructors should use the language of art treasures of the country to explain to the public. Heartfelt praise, so have the power to explain the language, there are appealing. Through poetic explanation, to open an imaginary space tourists, allowing visitors into the heart of the eye to admire the beauty of the exhibits. Historical time span class exhibition, event and complex, instructors should take prominent features in order to point the way to an area, clear explanation of ideas, targeted to explain. Guide through reading a lot of historical data and many years of accumulated experience to explain, to explain there is a clear idea that the longitudinal direction of historical development process as a point, horizontal interspersed other relevant content, and ultimately to the public, it is the expression of a complete city history.
In summary, as a museum guide and explain to enhance the interaction between tourists, master 'listening, speaking, reading and writing, "the four strokes is very important. "Listen" is to humbly listen to the views of tourist visitors, wisdom comes from life comes from the people; "that" is as a guide to encourage visitors to boldly involved, tell their own views on the museum's recommendations; "Reading" is a guide Visitors should be good to read facial expressions and tourist heart of some mental activities, so you can really make Zhiyizhibi instructors work is always based on interaction with tourists, avoid the emergence of instructors "talk" has become unrestrained Tourists but Sidongfeidong; "write" is a guide to do more notes, more visitors write down suggestions or ideas, write your own experience to explain, to write their own "talk postscript," summed up the success of each gains and losses, increased to facilitate the next build bridges between the two in order to achieve the purpose and functions of the museum's mission.