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构筑博物馆和游客之间的沟通桥梁

2012-06-05 21:23:00

                 来源:《神州》杂志2012年05期 国际刊号:ISSN1009-5071    黄新强   

        偶然看到博物馆在招聘讲解员,要求研究生学历。衡量博物馆讲解员的能力到底是什么?难道学历高就意味着能力高么?讲解员顾名思义,“讲”就是能利用博物馆这个传播历史知识和传统文化的特殊媒介,把博物馆自身所包含融汇的文化内涵及馆藏的珍贵物件或历史资料讲给游客听;“解”就是博物馆讲解员能通过自己的个人文化修养及自己对博物馆文化的独到见解,使游客能通过讲解员的“解”,让博物馆所呈现的特殊价值在游客面前显得更加真实、直接、生动的感染力和说服力。所以讲解员真正重要的并不是一定要有研究生学历,当然我们并不否定讲解员要有相当的学历,比如本科毕业;最好是文史类专业毕业的而是讲解员与游客间沟通互动的能力。

       目前许多博物馆还采用传统的方法,展品上作一个卡片式的说明和指示,基本上是让参观者自己进行视觉浏览,游客不能自己动手,不能参与。特别是讲解员的讲解众口一词,千人同调,参观者只能被动地接受。不能将游客的视觉、听觉、触觉充分地调动起来。这样没有互动对参观者而言缺乏新鲜感,人们缺少积极的参与性和高昂热情。

       如何形成和提升讲解员与游客之间的互动呢?

       一、竭诚服务是基础

       讲解员要树立为游客服务的意识,人有千面,基于他们自身的素质不同,不同的人到博物馆参观,他们会有不同的观感感受与心理体验,但无论怎样的游客,他来博物馆目的初衷肯定有共同的一点——通过博物馆收藏的历史文物感受古今。所以讲解员只有做到竭诚为游客服务,做到“心真诚”、“脸微笑”、“手脚勤”,急游客之所以急,想游客之所想,就一定能化解因某些客观原因造成的误会或偏激的情绪,使讲解员与游客之间的互动朝良性和谐的方向发展。

       从事讲解服务,必须把履职使命具体落实到日常各个环节、细节上,实施细节制胜的行为规范。讲解员既要有明确的目标、具体的措施和行动方案,又要十分重视和把握好每一个细节,把讲解工作中的每个细节都做好做透,在严格操作的基础上,做成规范化、标准化、艺术化,才能体现出一个馆的讲解艺术水平和服务质量。为此,讲解员必须做到心到、眼到、口到、手到:心到即心中装着游客,想游客之所想,急游客之所急,有强烈的完成好讲解任务的愿望和责任感。眼到即善于观察、善于发现,如有的游客有行为不便或特殊需求,或者展陈和展区有些工作细节存在不足,你若视而不见,那你就是眼没到。口到要根据现场游客构成,选择有针对性地因人施讲,能使施讲内容、施讲表情与游客的参观需求、审美情感和谐一致。手到即施讲的站立、身姿、手势及非语言行为实现配合到位的最佳效果。这四到始终贯穿于讲解服务的全过程,与讲解服务实效息息相关,只有把每个细节落到实处,才能凸现讲解细节艺术的魅力。

       二、当好桥梁引游客

       博物馆讲解员所担负的任务就是使博物馆教育化功能具体化,讲解是一门特殊的艺术,它要求讲解员具有坚定全面的思想品质,政治素质,端庄的仪表,以及高雅的艺术修养。博物馆的讲解员讲解工作是博物馆的一项制度安排,讲解员讲解水平的高低直接影响着博物馆在游客心目中的形象,影响到博物馆的社会地位,讲解员的工作成败关系到博物馆的未来与发展。讲解员承担着博物馆负责接待讲解的任务,直接面对游客,他的一举一动皆代表博物馆工作人员的形象,又影响游客对博物馆这特殊历史文物载体的认识。讲解员在游客与博物馆之间当好桥梁,通过讲解员的讲解能让游客喜欢走进博物馆,讲解员精彩的讲解能让游客“眼睛一亮”、发现博物馆里原来有许多他感兴趣的历史文物或传统文化,任何事物的壮大与发展都离不开人,当好桥梁,让游客乐于走进博  物馆,只有这样才能更好地与游客之间产生互动。

       博物馆的讲解工作主要在讲解的前置准备流程、施讲流程、效果反馈流程三个环节上,形成了既相互联系,又相互区别的无数个细节,构成了一个与讲解工作紧密相连的有机整体。

       首先,做好周密的讲解准备。讲解准备主要体现在经常性的准备和日常性的准备两个方面:前者即讲解的专业知识、讲解业务技能、陈展和讲解词的熟练度、游客咨询知识储备和礼节礼貌修养等;日常性准备即展示开启运行、服务设施运行、服务项目和讲解器材管理、游客沟通和讲解任务的领受、着装规范和行为标准及精神状态调整诸要素的准备。

       其次,把握优雅的讲解演绎。讲解是用声音传播信息的二度创造,它以不同兴趣爱好和审美情趣游客为对象,讲解员对已掌握知识进行整理、加工和提炼,用简明的语言进行一种意境的再创造。表现为主体接受知识——对知识进行再创造——将再创造的知识传播出去——进入新的主体的过程。即讲解员的“讲”与游客的“听”与“看”构成了讲解的基本过程。无论从游客组织与参观引领、施讲内容酌定与传播方法设定、行为规范亮相与文明用语示范等环节、细节上,都直接关系到游客的参观效果。因此,讲解员要善于运用语言艺术,将原先书面式的讲解词调整为口语表达,通过正确、清楚、生动、灵活的施讲,拉近与游客距离;要善于运用态势语言,调动游客注意力,寻求一种情感的共鸣;要善于“因人施讲”,针对不同结构层次的游客群体适时调整讲解内容、方法和时间进度,学会“缘物应景”、“随人而变”, 因为游客来自不同区域、不同职业、不同年龄和不同知识层次,讲解员就要根据所游客的不同特点,在讲解词中创造情景,增加悬念,用精彩的故事架起游客与历史文物之间的桥梁。讲解员要观察游客的表情和眼神,根据他的兴趣程度,扩充、缩减;针对不同的游客,采用不同的口吻,例如,面对专家,更侧重史实,面对小朋友,则要多讲些有趣的小故事。有时候,符合游客心理的一句话,胜过一百句生硬的讲解词。与游客建立一种“因人施讲”的平等和谐的关系非常重要,忽视不得。

       再次,重视讲解效果信息反馈。从一次讲解来说,游客的感知、想象、情感、思维在展陈的吸引和讲解员的导引下,在特定的参观环境中很快被激活,投入到文物标本及典型环境的审美沉思、观赏及对讲解的审美欣赏、品味之中。讲解效果信息反馈主要反映在征询分析、观察应变、结束评估诸多环节上,揭示了游客听讲的实际效果。在日常施讲运行中,游客往往从口头进行直接批评或表扬者居多。而从博物馆的规范管理上来说,最好采用固定表式或其他书面形式反馈为好。这样极有利于游客信息资源的汇总、分析、研究和提炼开发,在不断改进工作不足中提升讲解服务新水平。

       三、与时俱进学新知

       为什么有些人到过博物馆一次,后面就再也没有第二次了,难道游客一天真的就能把千百年来沉淀在博物馆中的一切都看懂了吗?不是的,而是讲解员的讲解不到位使游客成了博物馆的匆匆过客,这种只有一次性的参观显然是失败的。时代在发展,每天万物都在千变万化,讲解员的讲解词决不能老是众口一词,总是拾人牙慧。博物馆讲解是对博物馆文物的一种口述性再创作活动。讲解的成功与否,主要取决于讲解员对于文物所蕴含的历史、文化及背后的故事的综合把握。同一件文物,不同讲解员的讲解效果可能完全不同。有的讲解员,可以将古老而陌生的展品注入一些新鲜的元素,充分调动游客的胃口,要获得与游客互动的成功,讲解员自身的修为一定要与时俱进,因为每一个陈列从形式到内容都有丰富的内涵,每一件文物都有它特定的来源和悠远的历史背景,讲解员不仅要对每一件事物耳熟能详,还要有丰富的知识储备,所以既要争做专家型讲解员,研究文物、研究历史、 研究各类博物馆,又要有“杂家”的本领、要不断地学习新知,有流利的口才,能掌握几门外语这实际上超过了研究生水准了?这样的提法是否太高,懂得全国各地的风土人情,懂得当今科技领域的前进动向,懂得当今社会意识的主流理念,懂得环保理念。讲解员对自己所要讲解的文物或历史资料等如果能用丰富的理论、生动形象的语言去诠释,使游客产生共鸣,这种使游客在情感价值上有所获的互动,能使游客在游览博物馆中觉得很有收获,从而协助游客实现提升自我的需要。当这种游客成为博物馆的回头客时,有可能他就会成为一名编外的讲解员。

       讲解员不仅应具备一定的专业知识和艺术修养,包括对艺术作品的形式、结构、语言特征、风格样式的感受力和一定的审美经验,还要运用一定的讲解技巧。讲解的过程中,讲解员应了解展品及其作者的风格、特点,要能读懂所讲展品。如果讲解员本身都不知所讲展品的优劣,那会变成“盲讲”,讲解内容像一杯白开水,索然无味。
比如书画展品的讲解,讲解员必须要有一定的美术修养。了解作品的时代及个人风格。每位书画家由于个人的生活经历、艺术素养、情感倾向、审美理想、经济条件等方面的不同,以及使用工具与运用笔墨习惯的不同,反映在作品上必然形成不同的风格。不同的个人风格也会受到他们共同生活的时代、民族及阶级的审美情趣与审美需求的影响,从而呈现风格的一致性。书画讲解可以从作者及其所处时代的风格入手,对画面的笔墨、构图、线条、色彩、题跋加以解析,辅以展品背后的故事及作者的趣闻轶事,通过多角度的讲解,让书画展品变得更加生动,让游客觉得书画展览不再那么难懂。又如瓷器艺术品的讲解,讲解员应抓住游客的第一感觉从色彩讲起,进而是文饰、造型、窑口、时代特点及用途和制作过程。每件精美的瓷器陈列品都散发着涓涓的浓厚的艺术品味,讲解员也应运用艺术的语言来向公众诠释这些国之瑰宝。发自内心的赞美,这样的讲解语言才有力量、有感染力。通过诗情画意的讲解,给游客打开一个想象的空间,让游客由眼入心的去赞叹展品的美。历史类展览内容时间跨度长,事件多且复杂多变,讲解员应采取突出特色、以点带面的方式,理清讲解思路,有的放矢的进行讲解。讲解员要通过阅读大量的史料和多年讲解经验的积累,对讲解有一条清晰的思路,即纵向以历史发展进程为点,横向穿插其他相关内容,最终向公众表达出来的就是一部完整的城市历史。

       综上所述,作为博物馆讲解要提升讲解员与游客之间的互动,掌握“听、说、读、写”四招很重要。“听”就是要虚心倾听游客游客的意见,智慧源于生活源于人民;“说”就是作为讲解员要鼓励游客大胆参与进来,说出自已对博物馆的意见建议;“读”就是作为讲解员要善于读懂游客的表情以及游客内心的一些心理活动,这样可以真正做到知已知彼使讲解员的工作始终建立在是与游客的互动上,不致于出现讲解员的“讲”成了天马行空,游客却似懂非懂;“写”就是作为讲解员要多做笔记,多记下游客的建议或见解,写下自己的讲解心得,写好自己的“讲后记”,总结每次的成败得失,以利下次有所提高从而构筑两者之间的桥梁,达到博物馆宣教的目的和功能。
 

To build a bridge between the museum and visitors

Chance to see the museum in the recruitment of instructors, graduate degree requirements. Ability to measure museum instructors in the end is what? Is it high academic ability mean another job? Instructors name suggests, "talk" is able to take advantage of the Museum of the dissemination of historical knowledge and traditional cultural special media, the museum itself contains blend of cultural connotation and collections of precious objects or historical data tell visitors to listen to; the "solution" of the Museum guide through their own personal cultural training and cultural insights of the museum, so that visitors can guide the "solution" so that the special value of the museum presented before the tourists seem more real, direct, vivid and appealing convincing. What really matters is not so instructors must have a graduate degree, of course, we do not deny the instructors have a considerable degree, such as graduate; the best is the ability to literature and history graduate but communication between instructors interact with visitors .
 
       Many museums also uses the traditional method, as a card-on exhibits Indication basically visitors themselves visually by browsing, visitors can not do it yourself, you can not participate. Especially the instructors explain unanimous, thousands of homology, visitors can only passively accept. Tourists can not be visual, auditory, tactile fully mobilized. Thus no interaction to visitors in terms of lack of novelty, lack of active participation of the people and the high enthusiasm.

      How to form and enhance interaction between instructors and visitors to do?

       A dedication to service is the foundation

       To establish a sense guide services for tourists, who have a thousand faces, based on their own different qualities, different people to the museum, they have a different perception of feelings and psychological experience, but no matter what kind of tourists, he came to the museum purpose mind must have the common point - by museum of historical relics of ancient and modern feel. Only do so instructors and dedicated services for tourists, to "sincere heart", "smiling face", "wash hands", the reason why tourists anxious urgency, the tourists would like to think, we will be able to resolve for some objective reasons misunderstanding or extreme emotions, so that interaction between instructors and tourists toward the direction of the sound and harmonious development.
 
       Engaged on the service, the mission must perform their duties to the concrete implementation of all aspects of the daily, the details, the implementation details of the winning behavior norms. Instructors not only have clear objectives, specific measures and action plans, and also attaches great importance to and grasp every detail to explain every detail of the work to do so thoroughly, operate on the basis of strict, made standardization, artistic, explain to reflect the artistic level and quality of service of a museum. For this reason, instructors must do heart to your eyes, mouth, hand to: heart to heart that is filled with tourists, tourists want are thinking, be anxious visitors, the there is a strong desire to accomplish the task and responsibility to explain . That your eyes observant, to find, if the behavior of tourists inconvenience or special needs or exhibition showcasing some details of the work and deficiencies, if you turn a blind eye, you're not to the eye. Tourists mouth according to the site, select the person applying targeted speak, we can talk about the contents of Shi Shi-speaking tourists visiting the demand expression and aesthetic emotion harmony. That applied hand to talk standing, posture, gestures and non-verbal behavior to achieve the best results with the place. This four runs through the entire process to explain the service and guide service effectiveness is closely related only to implement every detail in order to explain the details of the artistic highlights of charm.

       Second, as a bridge attracted tourists

       Museum guide the tasks of education is to make the museum features specific to explain is a special art, which requires a comprehensive guide a firm ideological quality, and political quality, elegant appearance, and elegant artistic accomplishments. Museum work is a guide to explain the arrangement of the museum system, instructors explain the level of direct impact on the museum's image in the eyes of tourists, affecting the social status of the museum, the work related to the future success of instructors and museum development . Instructors bear the museum is responsible for the reception to explain the task, directly facing the tourists, his movements are representative of the image of the museum staff, but also the impact of visitors on the museum of historical relics support this special recognition. Between the tourist guide and museum as a bridge, by explaining instructors into the museum allows visitors to love, guide allows visitors to explain the wonderful "eye-catching" and found that there are many museums he is interested in history heritage or traditional culture, growth and development are inseparable from the people anything, as a bridge, allowing visitors into the museum willing, the only way to better interaction between visitors and produce.
 
       Museum to explain the work, mainly in the pre-preparation process to explain, the process applied stresses, the feedback effect on the flow of the three links, both formed a mutual contact, and differ from each other in numerous details, constitutes an organic whole working closely linked and Explanation .
 
       First of all, do thorough explanation ready. Ready to explain mainly in preparation and routine preparations for a regular two aspects: namely former explain the expertise to explain the business skills, Mr Chan and explain the words of proficiency, tourists consulting knowledge base and courtesy training, etc; routine That show ready to open, service, facilities, service, project management and explain the equipment, receive visitors and explain the task of communication, dress codes and standards of conduct and mental state of adjustment of various elements of the preparation.
 
       Second, grasp elegant explanation deduction. Explain the dissemination of information with sound Second Creation, it taste, and aesthetic appeal tourists as objects, instructors have mastered the knowledge of sorting, processing and refining, in plain language and then create a mood. The performance of the main recipients of knowledge - knowledge re-creation - the creation of a further spread the knowledge - into the process of a new body. That instructors "talk" with visitors "hear" and "see" constitute the basic explanation of the process. Both from tourists and visitors to lead the organization, Shi speak content and communication method setting discretionary, unveiled a code of conduct and civilized language and other aspects of the demonstration, the details, are directly related to the effect of visiting tourists. Therefore, instructors should be adept language arts, originally written to explain the formula was adjusted to spoken word, through correct, clear, vivid and flexible facilities to speak, to narrow the distance with visitors; should be adept at the language situation, mobilize the attention of visitors seeking an emotional resonance; to be good "because people speak Shi", adjust explain the content hierarchy for different groups of tourists, method and time schedule, learn to "margin was the occasion", "with the people and change", because tourists from different regions, different occupations, different ages and different levels of knowledge, we must guide the visitors to the different characteristics, creating the scenario to explain the word to increase the suspense, with wonderful stories to bridge the gap between tourists and historical relics. Guide visitors to observe the face and eyes, according to his level of interest, expand, reduce; for different visitors, using different tone, for example, the face of the experts, is more focused on the facts, face the children, they have to tell more interesting The little story. Sometimes, in line with tourists psychological word, blunt than one hundred words to explain. And visitors to establish a "the person applying stresses" the equal and harmonious relations are very important and must not be ignored.
 
       Again, pay attention to explain the effect of the feedback. From time to explain, the visitors perception, imagination, emotion, thinking at ZhanChen attract and guide the guide, soon to be activated in a particular visit environment into aesthetic contemplation heritage of the specimen and a typical environment, ornamental and aesthetic appreciation to explain, among taste. Explain the effect of the feedback mainly reflected in consultation analysis, observation strain, ending the assessment of many aspects, it reveals the practical effect of tourist attendance. Shi speak in everyday operation, visitors often directly from verbal criticism or praise by the majority. From the Museum of standardized management, the best fixed tabular form or other written feedback as well. Such highly conducive summary tourist information resources, analysis, research and refining development to enhance a new level on the service in the continuous improvement of work shortage.

       Three times to learn new knowledge

       Why do some people visited the museum once, back on the second no, do visitors really will be able to one day for thousands of years in the museum precipitated everything read it? No, but to explain the guide is not in place into a museum so that visitors passer, this is only a one-time visit is clearly a failure. Era in the development, things are changing every day, the instructors explain the term must not always speak with one voice, always pick up. Oral sex is a museum to explain the re-creation activities museum artifacts. Explain the success depends on the instructors for the story implied historical heritage, cultural and behind the overall grasp. The same piece of heritage, to explain the effect of different instructors may be completely different. Some instructors may be ancient and strange exhibits inject some new elements, to fully mobilize the appetite of tourists, to get visitors to interact with the success of the repair guide itself must advance with the times, because each display from form and content are rich in content, every artifact has its specific source and distant historical background, the instructors must not only familiar to every thing, but also a wealth of knowledge acquired, so it is necessary to become expert type guide, study artifacts, historical research study various museums, but also a "hybrid home" ability to continue to learn new knowledge, there are eloquent, able to master several foreign languages, which is actually more than the level of a graduate? Such a reference is too high, know the customs of the country, to understand trends in today's advances in science and technology, to understand today's social consciousness of mainstream philosophy, understand the concept of environmental protection. Guide for what you want to explain the cultural or historical information, etc. If you can use a wealth of theoretical and vivid language to interpret, so that visitors to resonate, which enables visitors to have received in the emotional value of interactive, enables visitors to tour museum feel very rewarding to assist visitors need to achieve self-improvement. When this museum visitors to become repeat customers, it is possible he will become a supernumerary instructors.
 
       Instructors should not only possess the necessary professional knowledge and artistic accomplishment, including the form of works of art, architecture, language features, sensibility and a certain styles of aesthetic experience, but also to explain the use of certain skills. Explain the process, instructors should be aware of the exhibits and the author's style, characteristics, to be able to understand spoken exhibits. If the instructors know the merits of the exhibits themselves are talking about, it will become "blind stresses", explain the content like a glass of water, dull.
 
      Such as painting and calligraphy exhibits explain, instructors must be some art training. Learn age and personal style works. Each painter because of personal life experiences, artistic accomplishment, emotional tendencies, different aesthetic ideal, economic conditions and other aspects, as well as the use of tools and the use of different words used to, is reflected in the works will inevitably lead to a different style. Personal style will also be different, aesthetics ethnic and class affect their time and their life together and aesthetic needs, thus showing consistency of style. You can explain the painting from the author and the style of the times start to the screen ink, composition, lines, colors, inscriptions to resolve, combined with stories and anecdotes the author behind the exhibits, by covering a variety of angles, so painting Exhibits become more vivid, painting and calligraphy exhibition allows visitors to feel not so hard to understand. Another example to explain the porcelain works of art, instructors should seize the first impression visitors from color talk, and then the tattoo, shape, kilns, age characteristics and uses and production processes. Each piece of fine porcelain exhibit exudes trickling strong artistic taste, instructors should use the language of art treasures of the country to explain to the public. Heartfelt praise, so have the power to explain the language, there are appealing. Through poetic explanation, to open an imaginary space tourists, allowing visitors into the heart of the eye to admire the beauty of the exhibits. Historical time span class exhibition, event and complex, instructors should take prominent features in order to point the way to an area, clear explanation of ideas, targeted to explain. Guide through reading a lot of historical data and many years of accumulated experience to explain, to explain there is a clear idea that the longitudinal direction of historical development process as a point, horizontal interspersed other relevant content, and ultimately to the public, it is the expression of a complete city history.
 
       In summary, as a museum guide and explain to enhance the interaction between tourists, master 'listening, speaking, reading and writing, "the four strokes is very important. "Listen" is to humbly listen to the views of tourist visitors, wisdom comes from life comes from the people; "that" is as a guide to encourage visitors to boldly involved, tell their own views on the museum's recommendations; "Reading" is a guide Visitors should be good to read facial expressions and tourist heart of some mental activities, so you can really make Zhiyizhibi instructors work is always based on interaction with tourists, avoid the emergence of instructors "talk" has become unrestrained Tourists but Sidongfeidong; "write" is a guide to do more notes, more visitors write down suggestions or ideas, write your own experience to explain, to write their own "talk postscript," summed up the success of each gains and losses, increased to facilitate the next build bridges between the two in order to achieve the purpose and functions of the museum's mission.

 
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