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县级博物馆数字化建设势在必行

2012-08-16 21:26:00

 来源:《神州》杂志 2012年第5期    国际刊号:ISSN1009-5071    黄新强    

       数字博物馆是运用数字、网络技术,将现实存在的实体博物馆的职能以数字化方式完整呈现于网络上的博物馆。具体来说,就是采用国际互联网与机构内部信息网信息构架,将传统博物馆的业务工作与计算机网络上的活动紧密结合起来,构筑博物馆大环境所需要的信息传播交换的桥梁,使实体博物馆的职能得以充分实现。

       一、博物馆数字化符合科学发展观

       数字技术、信息技术的发展,为文化遗产的保护和利用提供了一种方便、快捷的方式。 我国的博物馆早在20年前就已经开始了博物馆的数字化建设的探索。经过20年的实验阶段,我国数字化博物馆的发展已经进入成熟阶段,现在正在向更广更深发展。搞好信息化建设,提高文博事业的管理水平,是今后博物馆发展的必然选择。近年来中央财政和地方财政对博物馆建设的大力支持,让博物馆基础设施得到了改善,改造了基本陈列、增加了临时展览,拓展服务项目,提升了管理水平。2008年至2009年底,全国免费开放博物馆、纪念馆总数达1743个,接待观众8.2亿人次,2010年接待观众人数持续上升。对外展览、引进展览的工作量与日俱增,馆藏文物电子信息系统建档和安保工作量也成倍地增加。当然这也给博物馆的管理者提出了更高的要求,博物馆数字化能让管理水平与自身建设更上一层楼,化繁杂为精确,使千头万绪的管理与服务相得益彰、井井有条。当今社会已进入电子化、数字化的信息时代,数字化信息已深入到我们生活的方方面面,数字化技术无疑会对博物馆的工作产生深远影响。随着计算机技术、多媒体技术、通信技术、网络技术的飞速发展,数字化博物馆初露端倪,这给博物馆的发展带来了生机和新的机遇。数字化博物馆是博物馆发展的一个新阶段,它使博物馆的结构与实现博物馆职能的方式发生了变化,也使从事博物馆工作的人员在思维方式、工作方式及知识结构方面发生根本变化,对博物馆的工作来说具有挑战性。数字化博物馆是建立在国际互联网络基础上的“网上博物馆”,亦称之为“无墙博物馆”,它是博物馆为适应数字化时代的必然产物。博物馆数字化符合科学发展观。

       二、博物馆数字化才能适应社会生活的需求

       博物馆的免费开放给整个博物馆系统带来了崭新的、全方位的变化。在数字化博物馆中,藏品的各种信息,包括图像、影像、声音、文字等信息,利用多媒体技术有机地结合起来,使观众较为全面地了解藏品所反映的历史文化信息。对于观众有兴趣的藏品,还可利用逼真的、数字化的藏品三维模型进行多角度仔细观察。如此丰富的信息,是观众在传统博物馆中参观所无法获得的,博物馆数字化能快速提高博物馆的接待能力、接待质量及展览水平。数字化能使博物馆的专业性和知识性、学术性里融入趣味性、观赏性,让展览更通俗易懂,更易于观众所接受。随着信息技术、网络技术的不断发展和成熟,它的影响已逐渐渗透到人类生活的方方面面。在这样的时代背景影响下,在这样的历史潮流推动下。任何一项事业、任何一个行业,要想在这新世纪中依然充满生机和活力,立于不败之林,就须学会顺应这一潮流、适应这一时代。数字化博物馆,作为信息社会中一个不可缺少的环节,是重要的信息传播场所,握有极为丰富的信息资源。在这样一个以计算机技术为依托的信息时代中,理应充分利用先进科学技术,发挥自身资源优势,充分强化其信息传播、社会教育、知识分享功能,将其日积月累的馆藏资源和不断丰富的研究成果传播到世界各地,为世人所知,为世人所用。建立数字化博物馆已成为全世界博物馆界同仁的共识。而以计算机数字化方式集成文本、动画、图形图像、音频和视频等多种媒体的多媒体技术正是实现以上功能的关键技术。多媒体技术应用于现代化博物馆,将会凭借其集成、直观、便捷、低成本、不受时间空间限制等优势,使博物馆的保管、展示、宣教工作都发生前所未有的变化。“让地下的东西走上来,让书本上的东西走出来,让历史的东西活起来”真正让博物馆成为集展示、收藏、教育、娱乐为一体的“社会主义大课堂”。 数字化博物馆是适应社会生活的需求。

       三、博物馆数字化能促进地方的文化与经济发展

       博物馆数字化使博物馆的藏品保管、陈列设计、科研水平、观众工作、社会教育、安全保卫等方面的工作都有质的飞跃的同时,再加上免费开放的大好时机,来博物馆参观的观众人数必然剧增,数字化的博物馆其实也是一座城市最有内涵的一张名片,因其沉淀着一座城市的历史文化,肯定会带来各地慕名前来的游客,由此完全能促进地方经济与文化的大发展。因为博物馆数字化能使全国各地博物馆有了共享资源的平台,彼此间相互借鉴取长补短,把自身这张城市的名片打造地更加精美的同时,无形中又散发出了更吸引眼球的魅力。博物馆是人文旅游资源最宝贵的财富,数字化博物馆面对观众开放,无疑能提高当地城市的知名度,拉动旅游经济增长,并且也能促进当地与世界的文化交流,让人们在游山玩水的同时,也能走进博物馆,享受文化大餐,接受传统文化教育。

       四、数字化博物馆能能更好展现博物馆自身的特色

       博物馆的数字化已成为一种趋势,世界上许多国家和地区都已着手数字博物馆的建设,数字博物馆不再是博物馆人遥不可及的梦。北京故宫博物院的数字化后,游客到达故宫后,传一个信号给网通的平台后,手机就会变成一个自动讲解器,为游客播放故宫的讲解词。游客可通过电子触摸屏来欣赏参展的宫藏书画作品。展厅的每个显示器上,仅需简单的操作,就可以查阅展品的详细介绍,并将高品质的照片放大观看,甚至能看清最细微的笔墨变化,这就是数字化给传统博物馆带来新的生机。数字技术、信息技术的发展,为文化遗产的保护和利用提供了一种方便、快捷的方式。博物馆数字化能使自己的特色更加鲜明。,“博物馆”被认为是一种典型的处理旧物品的地方。然而,事实上,博物馆是收藏、维护和展示包括动物、植物、矿物以及关于历史、艺术、人类学、工业的物品的研究机构。因此,“数字化博物馆”在一种更广泛的意义中继续现有档案的功能,用更普通的话来说,它就是多媒体数据库。

       五、数字化博物馆是博物馆自身要壮大发展的催熟剂

       俗话说:有内容才有可看性,数字化博物馆数字化博物馆是博物馆自身要壮大发展的催熟剂,为了能更吸引观众,满足更多观众更高层次的观赏需求,数字化后的博物馆有自己的特色,会采取多种渠道征集文物,依靠财政征集文物,发动各方力量捐赠文物,充实本馆的文物。比如我们罗源县有各级文物保护单位31处,这些都是不可移动的文物,有全国独一无二的陈氏家庙的陈太尉宫,有独一无二最古的宋代十八罗汉造像等,有全国非物质文化遗产的畲拳、畲药和畲族服饰。有道教重要人物陈靖姑三姐妹之一的林九娘;还有宋代少师黄倫、太宰余深,著名文人陈善等。结合自身所在地的各文物保护单位以及非物质文化遗产等。

       数字化博物馆具有信息实体虚拟化、信息资源数字化、信息传递网络化、信息利用共享化、信息提供智能化、信息展示多样化等特点是数字化博物馆,在这里,最为关键的是信息实体虚拟化,即数字博物馆的一切活动,都是对实体博物馆工作职能的虚拟体现,都以实体博物馆为依托,同时又反过来作用于实体博物馆,是对实体博物馆职能的拓展和延伸的另一扇窗口,实体博物馆的丰富资讯得以从这个窗口传递出去,社会公众的需求数字博物馆丰富的收藏,高品质的展览和虚拟呈现的迷人的或震撼的场景,以及生动有趣的节目、活动等,激发了人们参观、体验真实博物馆的兴趣和愿望,进而成为实体博物馆的真实观众。数字化博物馆是博物馆自身要壮大发展的催熟剂。

 

Digital Construction imperative County Museum

        Digital Museum is the use of digital and network technologies, the functional reality of the entity museums to digitally complete presentation in the museum on the network. Specifically, it is using the Internet and in-house information network information architecture, the activity on the traditional museum operations and computer networks work closely together to build bridges of information dissemination museum environment needed for the exchange, so that the functions of the museum entity It can be fully realized.

       First, the museum digitized in line with scientific concept
of development

       The development of digital technology, information technology, for the protection and use of cultural heritage provides a convenient and fast way. Our museum as early as 20 years ago has begun to explore the construction of digital museum. After 20 years of the experimental stage, the development of digitized museum has entered a mature stage, are now moving to a broader and deeper development. Improve information construction, improve the management level cultural undertakings it is an inevitable choice in the future development of the museum. In recent years the central government and local financial support for the museum building, so the museum infrastructure has been improved, the transformation of the basic display, an increase of temporary exhibitions, expand services, enhance the management level. From 2008 to the end of 2009, the national free and open museums, memorial total of 1743, 820 million people receive the audience, in 2010 received attendance continues to rise. Foreign Trade, the introduction of the increasing workload of the exhibition of cultural relics electronic filing and information system security workload multiplied. Of course, this also gives the museum's manager made a higher demand, the museum digitization allows management level and a higher level of self-construction, of the complexity of accurately make the multitude of management and service complement each other, in perfect order. Today's society has entered the electronic, digital information age, digital information has penetrated into every aspect of our lives, digital technology will undoubtedly have a profound impact on the work of the museum. With the rapid development of computer technology, multimedia technology, communication technology, network technology, digital museum on the horizon, which gives the development of the museum brought to life and new opportunities. Digital museum is a new stage of museum development, it makes the structure of the museum and to achieve museum functions Changes in the way, but also in the museum's staff a fundamental change in the way of thinking, working methods and knowledge structure, the work of the museum it is challenging. Digital museum is built on the Internet, based on "online museum", also known as the "museum without walls", which is the inevitable product of the museum to adapt to the digital age. Museum digitization consistent with the scientific concept of development.

       Second, in order to meet the needs of the museum
digital social life

       The museum is open free to the entire museum system brings a new, comprehensive changes. In the digital museum, information collections, including images, video, audio, text and other information, using multimedia technology to organically combine to give the audience a more comprehensive understanding of the historical and cultural information collections reflected. For viewers interested in the collection, but also the use of realistic, three-dimensional model of digital collections multi-angle carefully observed. Such a wealth of information, is in a traditional museum visitors are not available, the museum digitization can quickly improve the reception capacity of the museum, reception quality and level of the exhibition. Digital makes the museum professional and informative, scholarly interest in integration, ornamental, make exhibitions more user-friendly, easier to the audience to accept. With the continuous development of information technology, network technology and mature, its influence has gradually penetrated into all aspects of human life. Under this background influence, in this historical trend driven. Any one cause, any one industry, in order in this new century is still full of vigor and vitality, I'm invincible, we must learn to conform to this trend, to adapt to this era. Digital Museum, as the information society as an indispensable part of, is an important place for information dissemination, holds a very rich source of information. In the information age, a computer technology as the basis, and should make full use of advanced science and technology, play to their advantages in resources, to fully strengthen its information dissemination, community education, knowledge sharing, which was accumulated rich collection of resources and continuous research spread around the world, known around the world for the use of the world. Digitized museum has become the consensus of the world's museums sector colleagues. The computer digitally integrated text, animation, graphics, images, audio and video and other media, multimedia technology is a key technology to achieve the above functions. Multimedia technology used in modern museum, will by virtue of its integrated, intuitive and convenient, low cost, without time and space constraints and other advantages, so keeping the museum, exhibition, missionary work unprecedented changes have taken place. "Let the underground stuff came up, so things on the books come out, let history come alive things" really makes the museum a set show, collection, education, entertainment as one of the "socialist big classroom." Digital museum is to meet the needs of social life.

       Third, the museum digitization can promote local culture
and economic development

       Museums make museum collections digitized storage, display design work, scientific research, audience work, social education, security and other aspects have a qualitative leap, while together with the free and open opportunity, the number of visitors to the museum inevitable surge digitized museum is actually a city most meaning a business card, because the sediment of history and culture of a city, is sure to bring tourists come to the country, thus fully able to promote local economic and cultural interaction development of. Because the museum digitization enables museums around the country with a platform to share resources among each other learn from each other, putting the card itself to build this city more attractive at the same time, virtually has a more eye-catching exudes charm. Museum is cultural tourism resources most valuable asset, digitized museum open facing the audience, will undoubtedly increase the visibility of local cities, stimulating economic growth, tourism, and also promote local and cultural exchanges in the world, so that people in a sightseeing tour at the same time , but also into the museum, enjoy cultural feast, to receive the traditional culture and education.

       Fourth, the digital museum can better show the
museum's own characteristics

       Museum digitization has become a trend, many countries and regions have started construction of digital museum, digital museum is no longer a distant dream museum people. After the Beijing Palace Museum digitization tourists arrived Forbidden City, Netcom pass a signal to the platform, the phone will become an automatic explanation is for visitors to play the Palace to explain words. Visitors can come to appreciate the Palace of Tibetan calligraphy and painting exhibition by electronic touch screen. On each display hall, just a simple operation, you can see the details of exhibits, and high-quality photo to enlarge, and can even see the slightest change ink, which is digitized to bring new Heritage Museum life. The development of digital technology, information technology, for the protection and use of cultural heritage provides a convenient and fast way. Museum digitized to make himself even more distinctive characteristics. "Museum" is considered to be a typical process where old items. However, in fact, the museum is the collection, maintenance and display including animals, plants, minerals, and research institutions on history, art, anthropology, industrial items. Therefore, the "digital museum" in a broader sense to continue to function in the existing archives, with the more general terms, it is a multimedia database.

       Fifth, the digital museum is the museum itself to grow
and develop ripening agent

       As the saying goes: there are only worth watching content, digitization Museum Digital Museum is a museum of their own to grow and develop the ripening agent, in order to attract more viewers, more viewers to meet higher levels of demand viewing, the museum digitized own Features, will take a variety of channels to collect artifacts, relying financial collecting relics Donation mobilize all forces to enrich the museum's artifacts. For example, we have Luoyuan 31 units of cultural relics, which are immovable cultural relics, there are unique in the country, Chen family temple 陈太尉 Palace, has a unique Eighteen Song oldest statues, etc., there is the national non-material It punches cultural heritage, medicine and She She clothing. One of the important figures of Taoism Chen Jing Gu Lin Jiuniang three sisters; there are few divisions Song Huang Lun, Osamu than deep, well-known scholar Chen Shan and so on. Each with its own location as well as the intangible cultural heritage protection units and so on.
 
       Digital museum has an information entity virtualization, digital information resources, information transmission network, access to information sharing, information provided intelligence information to show diversity and other characteristics are digitized museum, where the most critical information entity virtualization, namely All activities of digital museum, are the real functions of the virtual museum reflect, all the entities to museum-based, while in turn acts on the physical museum is a museum on the real functions of the expansion and another door window extending entity museum The wealth of information to be passed out from the window, the public demand for rich digital museum collections, charming or shocking scenes of high-quality exhibitions and virtual presentation, and interesting programs, activities, stimulated people to visit and experience real interest and desire museum, and thus become true audience entities museum. Digital Museum is a museum of their own to grow and develop ripening agent.

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