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中小博物馆藏品保护管理中的突出问题及对策

2012-05-01 21:30:00
  来源:《神州》杂志2012年第05期  国际刊号:ISSN1009-507    黄新强    

        中小博物馆是我国文化产业的重要组成部分,这里具有独特的地方特色,珍藏着一大批地方历史文物资料,在传播地方民族文化、历史文化、革命传统、社会主义先进文化等方面发挥着积极的作用,是地方文化展示、文物保护、研究和教育中心。罗源县博物馆成立于2004年 11月,是一个以地方历史为主,系统展示罗源县民族悠久文化历史的综合性中小型博物馆。博物馆占地面积1500平方米,陈列展厅面积为580平方米,库房及办公面积为100平方米,展览既体现地方历史文化和社会发展特点,又具有地方民族特点的畲族文化和地方的革命史略为主题的文物350件,被列入福州市青少年德育基地、罗源县直机关思想政治教育基地、罗源县青少年爱国主义教育基地、罗源县科普教育基地。如何管理类似这样的全国中小型博物馆并且充分发挥这块基地的功能,笔者有以下几方面不成熟的思考。

       一、中小博物馆藏品保护管理中的突出问题

       从目前文物部门统计的数据来看,在全国2200多家博物馆中,共有馆藏文物1236万余件套。在这2200多家博物馆中,有三分之二以上是中小博物馆,有公立博物馆也有私立博物馆。因诸多方面的原因,我国的中小博物馆馆藏文物遭受了“另类”待遇,得不到有效的保护管理。通过对罗源县博物馆馆藏文物调查的情况来看,折射出全国中小博物馆普遍存在的问题,令人深思和担忧。

       问题一:藏品保护硬件差。

       长期以来,很多中小博物馆没有像样的库房,有的是在旧房改造基础上建成的库房。库房环境较差,潮湿漏雨,面积严重不足,远远的达不到藏品保护的要求。库房建设或改造未考虑文物防震、防雷、防虫、防潮、防干、防光和防尘等方面的因素,导致文物自然损坏严重。在藏品的保护措施方面也缺乏科学管理,有些藏品就用包装纸一包摞在一起,更谈不上使用囊匣保护。不论是馆藏品或是陈列品都仅有几个框子,几个柜子,再加点防虫、防潮剂,未采取其它保护措施。此外,在防火、防盗方面也缺乏必要的考虑,近几年来,由于防火、防盗造成的文物损坏也屡见不鲜。有的连“三铁”基本要求都达不到,更不要说自动报警系统、烟感系统、电视监控系统等保护措施。

       问题二:藏品保护资金严重缺少。

       文物经费不足一直是困扰文物保护和阻碍文物事业发展的突出问题。据中国博物馆学会理事长张文彬介绍,全国2200个博物馆中,大约有2/3生存困难,其中以中小博物馆居多。中小博物馆一般是地方的非营利公益事业单位,财政支持力度小,而且有的地方并未将文物的保护与管理严格按照文物保护“五纳入”的原则加大对文物保护的投入。加之全国博物馆自身造血功能不能强,门可罗雀,经营收入少,导致文物保护资金严重缺少。由于没有资金投入,馆藏文物的保护保管问题无法解决,更谈不上花更多的资金来投入文物的征集。

       问题三:藏品保护技术手段落后。

       许多中小博物馆的馆藏文物自然损坏和人为损坏严重,加上博物馆的现代化保护技术水平差,对馆藏文物的保护停留在“看数量、查温度”的工作层面,对馆藏文物保护中遇到的问题找不到合适的方法,特别是在文物修复和复制中遇到的种种棘手问题没有设备和技术来解决,只能眼睁睁的看着文物随着时间的推移而损毁。中小博物馆专业人才少,文物保管岗位人员流动频繁,又缺乏经常性的培训和学习,导致岗位人员业务不熟悉,专业技术能力差。

       问题四:藏品保护意识弱。

有的部门、单位领导分工不明确,缺乏对文物保护的责任意识,认识不到文物的本体价值所在,过分关注其经济价值。有的领导只关注日常性的工作,对文物保护漠然置之,甚至对自己的“家底”都不了解。文物保管员对藏品的保护更是抱着一种无所谓的态度,认为只要“守好一栋房子、收好一点票子、管好一个章子”,就可以了,天天“打开门售票,关上门睡觉”,不能正确认识藏品的存在价值及意义。

       问题五:藏品保护缺乏科学管理。

大多数中小博物馆缺乏一套对文物保护和管理的科学管理制度。藏品登记分类混乱、入库排架无序、编目统计不清、建档内容不齐等现象严重。加之保管员的素质参次不齐,不熟悉基本操作规程,导致人为损坏严重。

       二、加强中小博物馆藏品保护管理的对策

藏品是博物馆发挥社会功能的关键依托,是博物馆存在的价值所在,是博物馆的生命线,中小博物馆藏品的保护管理在社会主义先进文化建设中有不可取代的作用,加强中小博物馆的藏品保护管理工作意义重大。

       (一)、加强库房基础设施建设,提高硬件保护水平。博物馆最首要的功能就是文物的保护与保管,《博物馆藏品管理办法》中明确规定,藏品应有固定、专用的库房,专人管理,库房建筑及保管设备要求安全、坚固、适用、经济。因此博物馆藏品库房是关系到藏品是否安全和有效保护的重要条件,其选址、结构、布局、设施等是否考虑了地方的一些不可抗拒因素,是否合理妥当,将直接影响到藏品的寿命和安全。同时,要严格按照博物馆《安全保卫工作规定》、《文物系统博物馆安全防范工程设计规范》的具体要求,特别是新的文物库房的建设要特别考虑到这些方面的因素,严格按照“十防(防震、防雷、防虫、防潮、防干、防光、防尘、防火、防盗和防污染)”的要求进行设计。此外,在设备方面,要加快对文物保护设备设施的更新或添置。有条件的博物馆要在现代化保护设备,如恒温恒湿机等方面舍得资金投入。要提供文物修复的基本设备和物资,有条件的博物馆可以经批准自行进行一般文物的简单修复。

       (二)、各方争取,缓解资金压力。博物馆事业作为公益事业,目前实现“以文养文”博物馆并不多,首先需要各级财政的大力支持。《文物保护法》第十条明确规定:“国家发展文物保护事业。县级以上人民政府应当将文物保护事业纳入本级国民经济和社会发展规划,所需经费列入本级财政预算。国家用于文物保护的财政拨款随着财政收入的增长而增加。”其二要保证专项经费专用。目前文物保护专项经费未专款专用的现象很多,资金经常挪作他用。其三,借助各方力量,加大对文物保护的投入。国家要制定优惠的政策予以支持社会各界对文物事业的扶持,可以收取资源税,适当减免相关税种。要广泛争取国际组织、友好国家政府及团体,特别是海外华人、港澳台同胞对我国博物馆事业的关注和支持,设立“保护基金”。其四,中小博物馆要积极利用自身的优势,努力把博物馆推向市场,多方面加大产业的开发,获取经济收入,缓解资金压力。

       (三)、加强专业人员培养,提高藏品保护科学技术水平。随着科学技术的提高,越来越多的文物保护问题可以借现代科学和传统工艺来解决。新时期,我们要积极的开展馆藏文物的保护研究工作,针对不同类别的文物展开技术性保护,以不断的实践促进技术的提高。但如何提高专业技术水平,关键在于人,因为技术和设备都需要人这个主体来进行使用和操作。首先要提高保管员的政治素质和业务素质,培养树立热爱博物馆的职业道德情感,组织现有岗位人员积极参加各项专业技能的培训,加强岗位的继续教育。其次,要尽可能的创造条件,留住一些热爱博物馆工作,致力于博物馆事业的从业人员,为藏品保护专业人才的成长提供一个良好的环境,为其在学习教育、工资福利等方面,如设立专项岗位津贴,要有政策性保障举措。其三,要吸引外来的技术和人才。文物保护管理研究技术是一个区域化、国际化的技术,我们也可以借鉴国内、国外的许多同行的技术,从外单位聘用一些专家、学者担任顾问,走出去学,请进来学,借他人之学,为我所用。

       (四)、明确责任,提高保护意识。首先,领导要有高度的法律意识和责任意识,特别是法定代表人要对馆藏文物的安全负责,建立文物保护情况报告制度,定期向主管部门报告藏品的保护保管情况,要层层签订责任状,明确自身担负的职责,以历史唯物主义为指导,以实事求是的态度来对待文物保护工作。其次,以身作则,积极参与到文物的保护队伍中来,积极宣传藏品保护的意义,鼓励和培养一批热爱文博事业的从业人员。其三,转变传统观念,提升思路,要利用文物的本身价值,提高博物馆门票的附加价值,发挥藏品的社会功能,让博物馆走向学校、走向社区、走向社会。其四,要定期检查督促藏品保护保管工作,赏罚分明,发现问题及时解决。

       (五)、健全规章制度,实行科学管理。《博物馆藏品管理办法》明确规定,保管工作要做到制度健全、账目清楚、鉴定确切、编目详明、保管妥善、查用方便。要实现藏品的科学化管理,就必须要加强藏品科学管理理论和方法的研究。首先要建立健全一套完善的科学管理步骤。藏品管理的主要任务是接收、鉴定、登帐、分类、编目、定级、建档、入库、排架、提用、注销和统计,每一个藏品管理工作者要严格按照这些程序进行藏品管理。二是有一套严格的规章制度,只有制度健全,程序合理,才有可能有条不紊的开展藏品保护工作。这些制度应包括基本的工作职责和每项具体保护保管的操作规程,例如藏品征集、鉴定、分类、消毒、修复、复制制度和出入库管理规定、安全管理守则、设备设施的检修制度等。同时保管部门要明确自身的责任,责任落实,分工明确,要在不断实践的过程中完善保管制度的建设,不断整改提高。三是要提高全员的法律意识,以法律法规来指导自己的业务工作,对文物、博物馆的法律法规要熟悉掌握和运用,例如《文物保护法》及其《实施条例》、《省、市、自治区博物馆工作条例》、《博物馆藏品管理办法》、《文物藏品定级标准》等。其四,要积极借鉴现代化的管理经验,例如运用ISO9001质量管理体系标准将藏品保护管理作为一种“产品”进行严格的监控,逐渐形成文件化、程序化、标准化的管理体系。其五,要充分发挥藏品管理信息化系统的作用,利用数据库管理藏品,尤其是要借全国馆藏文物普查的契机来摸清自己“家底”,利用馆藏文物信息管理系统来建立健全馆藏文物资料。
博物馆藏品是一切博物馆业务活动的物质基础,藏品的数量和质量决定博物馆的地位,藏品的保护和管理是博物馆基础工作的基础。如果不加强对中小博物馆藏品的保护管理,笔者以为损失的不仅仅是文物,更多的是缺失了社会责任。
 

Problems outstanding small museum collections
protection management

        Small museum is an important part of China's cultural industry, where a unique local characteristics, a collection of a large number of local history and cultural relics in the dissemination of local culture, history and culture, revolutionary tradition, an advanced socialist culture has played an active role , local cultural shows, heritage, research and education center. Luoyuan museum was established in November 2004, is a local history-based, the system shows a long cultural history Luoyuan national comprehensive small museums. Museum covers an area of ​​1,500 square meters, an area of ​​580 square meters exhibition hall, warehouse and office space of 100 square meters, the exhibition not only reflect the local history, culture and social development characteristics, but also has the characteristics of local ethnic culture and local Shes A Brief History of Revolution Theme artifacts 350, was included in the adolescent moral base in Fuzhou, Luoyuan organs of ideological and political education base, Luoyuan teenagers patriotism education base, Luoyuan science education base. How to manage the country's small museums like this and give full play to the function of this base, we have the following aspects immature thinking.

       First, the small museum collections protection and management
of the outstanding problems

       Cultural sector from the current statistical data, more than 2,200 museums in the country, a total of more than 1236 pieces of cultural relics collection sets. In more than 2,200 museums, more than two-thirds of the small museum, there is a public museum also has a private museum. Due to many reasons, China's small museum artifacts subjected to the "alternative" treatment, the lack of effective protection and management. Through the case of Luoyuan museum relics survey, the country's small museum reflects a common problem, thought-provoking and concerns.
One problem: the difference between holdinga protection hardware.
       Over the years, many small museums do not have decent houses, some built on the basis on the transformation of old warehouse. Treasury poor environment, moisture leaks, a serious shortage of space, far from the reach collections protection. Warehouse construction or renovation does not consider cultural shock, lightning, pest control, moisture, dry, dust and other aspects of anti-factor of light, resulting in severe damage to the natural heritage. The protection of collections also lack of scientific management, some holding a bag on the pile of wrapping paper together, let alone use, drawer protection. Whether collections or exhibits are only a few framed, several cabinets, add some pest control, moisture-proof agent, no other protective measures. In addition, fire, theft and also lack the necessary consideration, in recent years, cultural damage caused by fire, theft caused uncommon. Some even "three iron" basic requirements are not, not to mention protection alarm system, smoke detector system, TV monitoring systems.
Second problem: the severe shortage of fundsholding protection.
       Lack of cultural heritage and funding has been plagued outstanding problems hinder the development of cultural undertakings. According to the China Association of Museums director Zhang Wenbin introduction, the National Museum in 2200, about two-thirds survive the difficulties, which are mostly small and medium sized museums. Small museum is a non-profit welfare institutions generally place little financial support, and in some places has not the protection and management of cultural relics protection of cultural relics in strict accordance with the "five into the" principle to increase investment in heritage conservation. Coupled with the National Museum's own hematopoietic function is not strong, deserted, less operating income, resulting in a serious lack of funding heritage. In the absence of capital investment, protection of cultural relics collection storage problem can not be solved, let alone spend more money to put in the collection of cultural relics.
Question three: holding protection technology behind.
       Many small museum collection of artifacts severe damage to the natural and man-made damage, plus the difference between the museum's modern protection technology, protection of cultural relics collection remain in the "look at the number, check the temperature of the" working level, issues encountered in the collection of cultural relics protection Can not find the right method, various thorny issues, especially in heritage restoration and replication encountered no equipment and technology to solve, can only watch as relics and damaged over time. Small little museum professionals, cultural relics preservation job staff turnover and lack of recurrent training and learning, resulting in staff positions are not familiar with the business, professional and technical ability is poor.
 Question 4: Holding weak protection awareness.
Some departments, unit leadership is not clear division of labor, lack of sense of responsibility for heritage conservation, do not recognize the value of cultural relics of the body lies, too much attention to its economic value. Some leaders are only concerned with routine work on the protection of cultural relics indifference, even to their own "real situation" do not understand. Custodian of the collection of cultural relics protection is holding a kind of indifferent, as long as "keep a good house, to close a little better tickets, manage a sub-chapter", you can, every day "open door ticket, shut the door to sleep "we can not correctly understand the value and significance of the presence of collections.

Question 5: Holding the protection of the lackof scientific management.
Most of the lack of a small museum of heritage conservation and management of scientific management system. Holding registration classification confusion, disorderly bay storage, cataloging statistics unclear, archiving content, such as missing is serious. Coupled with quality parameters times uneven custodian, not familiar with the basic rules, leading to serious human damage.

       Second, to strengthen the protection of the small museum
collections management strategies

Museum collections are relying on to play a key social function, the value in the presence of a museum, a museum of the lifeline, protection and management of medium and small museum collections have an irreplaceable role in the construction of advanced socialist culture, strengthen the protection of the small museum collections management significance significant.
 
       (A) strengthening the Treasury infrastructure construction, improve the hardware level protection. The most important function of the museum is the cultural relics protection and custody, "museum collections management approach" clearly stipulates that the collection should be fixed, dedicated warehouse, staff management, warehouse and storage facility construction requirements for safety, strong, applicable and economical. Therefore, the Treasury is related to the museum collections collections is safe and effective protection of important conditions, its location, structure, layout, facilities, etc. are considered some parts of force majeure, is reasonable properly, it will directly affect the life and safety of collections . At the same time, we must strictly in accordance with the museum, "safety and security regulations", "cultural museums security engineering design specifications" of the specific requirements, in particular the construction of a new storehouse with special consideration to these factors, and in strict accordance with "ten anti-( earthquake, lightning, pest control, moisture, dry, anti-light, dust, fire, theft and pollution prevention), "the requirements for the design. Furthermore, in terms of equipment, equipment and facilities to speed up the protection of cultural relics updates or additions. Conditional museum should be willing to invest funds in the modernization of protective equipment, such as a constant temperature and humidity and so on. Conservators to provide basic equipment and supplies, conditional upon approval of the museum can be a simple fix their own cultural property in general.
 
       (B), the parties seek to ease the financial pressure. Museum career as a public good, now to achieve the "text support text" museum is not much, you first need to support all levels of finance. "Cultural Relics Protection Law" Article clearly states:. "National Development and protection of cultural relics above the county level cultural relic protection should be included in the national economic and social development planning, requirements included in the fiscal budget for national use. financial allocations to the protection of cultural relics along with revenue growth and increase. "Second, to ensure that the special funds dedicated. Currently not earmarked special funds heritage phenomenon many funds are often diverted. Third, with all forces, to increase investment in heritage conservation. The state should formulate preferential policies to support the community's support of cultural relics, can charge resource tax, appropriate relief related taxes. To seek a wide range of international organizations and friendly governments and organizations, especially overseas Chinese, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots on the cause of our concern and support for the museum, set up a "protection fund." Fourth, small museums to actively use their own strengths, and strive to museums to the market, increase the development of many industries, access to income, to ease the financial pressure.
 
       (Iii) to strengthen professional training, science and technology to improve the collection of protection. With the improvement of science and technology, more and more problems can be borrowed heritage and tradition of modern science and technology to solve. The new era, we should actively carry out research work to protect cultural relics collection, expand the technical protection against different types of artifacts, to continue the practice of promoting the improvement of technology. But how to enhance their professional skills, the key is people, because the technology and equipment needed to carry out one of the body to use and operate. First of all to improve the political and professional quality custodian of culture and establish emotional love museum ethics, the organization's existing staff positions and actively participate in the training of professional skills, strengthen continuing education positions. Secondly, to the extent possible to create conditions for keeping some love museum, the museum dedicated to the cause of workers, protection of collections professionals grow to provide a good environment for the study and education, wages and benefits and other aspects, such as the establishment special allowance, there must be safeguards policy initiatives. Third, to attract foreign technology and talent. Management of technology heritage is a regional and international technology, we can also learn from the country, many of its peers in the technology abroad, hiring experts from outside the unit, academics as consultants, go learn, please come to learn, by others science, as I used to.
 
       (Iv) a clear responsibility to improve protection. First, leaders must have a high degree of legal awareness and sense of responsibility, in particular to the legal representative responsible for the safety of cultural relics collection, the establishment of heritage conservation reporting system, report regularly to the competent authorities to protect the collections custody case, signed their responsibility to shape , clarify its responsibilities shouldered, with historical materialism, a pragmatic attitude towards the protection of cultural relics. Secondly, lead by example and actively participate in the protection of cultural relics in the team to actively promote the significance of holding the protection, encourage and foster a love for the cultural cause practitioners. Third, change the traditional concept of promotion ideas, to make use of their heritage value and increase the added value of museum tickets, and play social functions collections, so the museum to schools, to community, to society. Fourth, to regularly inspect and supervise the protection of custody of collections, reward and punishment, identify problems promptly resolved.
 
       (V), improve rules and regulations, the implementation of scientific management. "Museum collections management approach" clearly stipulates that keep working to achieve a sound system, the accounts clear, precise identification, cataloging full and clear, proper storage, easy to use search. To achieve collection of scientific management, it is necessary to strengthen the research collection of scientific management theories and methods. First, to establish and improve a sound scientific management procedures. The main task of management is to receive the collection, identification, keep accounts, classification, cataloging, classification, archiving, storage, bent, drawdown, cancellation and statistics, every worker holding management procedures in strict accordance with these collections management . The second is a set of strict rules and regulations, and only sound system, due process, will it be possible to carry out an orderly collection of protection. These systems should include basic job responsibilities and keeping each specific protection rules, such as collections collection, identification, classification, disinfection, repair, replication and storage management system provides security management practices, equipment and facilities maintenance system. Meanwhile custody department to clear their responsibilities, responsibilities, division of labor, to improve the construction of custody system in process of continuous practice, continue to rectification. The third is to improve the legal awareness of all staff, with the laws and regulations to guide their operations, to the heritage, the museum should be familiar with the laws and regulations and the use of such "Cultural Relics Protection Law" and its "implementing regulations", "provincial, city , autonomous museum Work "," museum collections management approach "," Heritage Collection grading standards ". Fourth, we should actively learn modern management experience, such as the use of ISO9001 quality management system standards to protect the collections management as a "product" strictly monitored, and gradually formed documents, procedures and standardized management system. Fifth, we should give full play to the role of holding management information system, the use of database management collections, especially like to take the opportunity of the national collection of cultural relics survey to find out themselves the "real situation", the use of cultural relics collection information management system to establish and improve the collection of cultural relics.
 
       Museum collections is the material basis of all operational activities museum, quantity and quality of the collection of the Museum of the status of the decision, the collection is the basis for the conservation and management of the museum foundation work. If you do not strengthen the protection and management of medium and small museum collections, I think not only the loss of cultural relics, more is the lack of social responsibility.
 
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