来源：《神州》杂志2012年第05期 国际刊号：ISSN1009-507 黄新强
Problems outstanding small museum collections
Small museum is an important part of China's cultural industry, where a unique local characteristics, a collection of a large number of local history and cultural relics in the dissemination of local culture, history and culture, revolutionary tradition, an advanced socialist culture has played an active role , local cultural shows, heritage, research and education center. Luoyuan museum was established in November 2004, is a local history-based, the system shows a long cultural history Luoyuan national comprehensive small museums. Museum covers an area of 1,500 square meters, an area of 580 square meters exhibition hall, warehouse and office space of 100 square meters, the exhibition not only reflect the local history, culture and social development characteristics, but also has the characteristics of local ethnic culture and local Shes A Brief History of Revolution Theme artifacts 350, was included in the adolescent moral base in Fuzhou, Luoyuan organs of ideological and political education base, Luoyuan teenagers patriotism education base, Luoyuan science education base. How to manage the country's small museums like this and give full play to the function of this base, we have the following aspects immature thinking.
First, the small museum collections protection and management
of the outstanding problems
Cultural sector from the current statistical data, more than 2,200 museums in the country, a total of more than 1236 pieces of cultural relics collection sets. In more than 2,200 museums, more than two-thirds of the small museum, there is a public museum also has a private museum. Due to many reasons, China's small museum artifacts subjected to the "alternative" treatment, the lack of effective protection and management. Through the case of Luoyuan museum relics survey, the country's small museum reflects a common problem, thought-provoking and concerns.
One problem: the difference between holdinga protection hardware.
Over the years, many small museums do not have decent houses, some built on the basis on the transformation of old warehouse. Treasury poor environment, moisture leaks, a serious shortage of space, far from the reach collections protection. Warehouse construction or renovation does not consider cultural shock, lightning, pest control, moisture, dry, dust and other aspects of anti-factor of light, resulting in severe damage to the natural heritage. The protection of collections also lack of scientific management, some holding a bag on the pile of wrapping paper together, let alone use, drawer protection. Whether collections or exhibits are only a few framed, several cabinets, add some pest control, moisture-proof agent, no other protective measures. In addition, fire, theft and also lack the necessary consideration, in recent years, cultural damage caused by fire, theft caused uncommon. Some even "three iron" basic requirements are not, not to mention protection alarm system, smoke detector system, TV monitoring systems.
Second problem: the severe shortage of fundsholding protection.
Lack of cultural heritage and funding has been plagued outstanding problems hinder the development of cultural undertakings. According to the China Association of Museums director Zhang Wenbin introduction, the National Museum in 2200, about two-thirds survive the difficulties, which are mostly small and medium sized museums. Small museum is a non-profit welfare institutions generally place little financial support, and in some places has not the protection and management of cultural relics protection of cultural relics in strict accordance with the "five into the" principle to increase investment in heritage conservation. Coupled with the National Museum's own hematopoietic function is not strong, deserted, less operating income, resulting in a serious lack of funding heritage. In the absence of capital investment, protection of cultural relics collection storage problem can not be solved, let alone spend more money to put in the collection of cultural relics.
Question three: holding protection technology behind.
Many small museum collection of artifacts severe damage to the natural and man-made damage, plus the difference between the museum's modern protection technology, protection of cultural relics collection remain in the "look at the number, check the temperature of the" working level, issues encountered in the collection of cultural relics protection Can not find the right method, various thorny issues, especially in heritage restoration and replication encountered no equipment and technology to solve, can only watch as relics and damaged over time. Small little museum professionals, cultural relics preservation job staff turnover and lack of recurrent training and learning, resulting in staff positions are not familiar with the business, professional and technical ability is poor.
Question 4: Holding weak protection awareness.
Some departments, unit leadership is not clear division of labor, lack of sense of responsibility for heritage conservation, do not recognize the value of cultural relics of the body lies, too much attention to its economic value. Some leaders are only concerned with routine work on the protection of cultural relics indifference, even to their own "real situation" do not understand. Custodian of the collection of cultural relics protection is holding a kind of indifferent, as long as "keep a good house, to close a little better tickets, manage a sub-chapter", you can, every day "open door ticket, shut the door to sleep "we can not correctly understand the value and significance of the presence of collections.
Question 5: Holding the protection of the lackof scientific management.
Most of the lack of a small museum of heritage conservation and management of scientific management system. Holding registration classification confusion, disorderly bay storage, cataloging statistics unclear, archiving content, such as missing is serious. Coupled with quality parameters times uneven custodian, not familiar with the basic rules, leading to serious human damage.
Second, to strengthen the protection of the small museum
collections management strategies
Museum collections are relying on to play a key social function, the value in the presence of a museum, a museum of the lifeline, protection and management of medium and small museum collections have an irreplaceable role in the construction of advanced socialist culture, strengthen the protection of the small museum collections management significance significant.
(A) strengthening the Treasury infrastructure construction, improve the hardware level protection. The most important function of the museum is the cultural relics protection and custody, "museum collections management approach" clearly stipulates that the collection should be fixed, dedicated warehouse, staff management, warehouse and storage facility construction requirements for safety, strong, applicable and economical. Therefore, the Treasury is related to the museum collections collections is safe and effective protection of important conditions, its location, structure, layout, facilities, etc. are considered some parts of force majeure, is reasonable properly, it will directly affect the life and safety of collections . At the same time, we must strictly in accordance with the museum, "safety and security regulations", "cultural museums security engineering design specifications" of the specific requirements, in particular the construction of a new storehouse with special consideration to these factors, and in strict accordance with "ten anti-( earthquake, lightning, pest control, moisture, dry, anti-light, dust, fire, theft and pollution prevention), "the requirements for the design. Furthermore, in terms of equipment, equipment and facilities to speed up the protection of cultural relics updates or additions. Conditional museum should be willing to invest funds in the modernization of protective equipment, such as a constant temperature and humidity and so on. Conservators to provide basic equipment and supplies, conditional upon approval of the museum can be a simple fix their own cultural property in general.
(B), the parties seek to ease the financial pressure. Museum career as a public good, now to achieve the "text support text" museum is not much, you first need to support all levels of finance. "Cultural Relics Protection Law" Article clearly states:. "National Development and protection of cultural relics above the county level cultural relic protection should be included in the national economic and social development planning, requirements included in the fiscal budget for national use. financial allocations to the protection of cultural relics along with revenue growth and increase. "Second, to ensure that the special funds dedicated. Currently not earmarked special funds heritage phenomenon many funds are often diverted. Third, with all forces, to increase investment in heritage conservation. The state should formulate preferential policies to support the community's support of cultural relics, can charge resource tax, appropriate relief related taxes. To seek a wide range of international organizations and friendly governments and organizations, especially overseas Chinese, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan compatriots on the cause of our concern and support for the museum, set up a "protection fund." Fourth, small museums to actively use their own strengths, and strive to museums to the market, increase the development of many industries, access to income, to ease the financial pressure.
(Iii) to strengthen professional training, science and technology to improve the collection of protection. With the improvement of science and technology, more and more problems can be borrowed heritage and tradition of modern science and technology to solve. The new era, we should actively carry out research work to protect cultural relics collection, expand the technical protection against different types of artifacts, to continue the practice of promoting the improvement of technology. But how to enhance their professional skills, the key is people, because the technology and equipment needed to carry out one of the body to use and operate. First of all to improve the political and professional quality custodian of culture and establish emotional love museum ethics, the organization's existing staff positions and actively participate in the training of professional skills, strengthen continuing education positions. Secondly, to the extent possible to create conditions for keeping some love museum, the museum dedicated to the cause of workers, protection of collections professionals grow to provide a good environment for the study and education, wages and benefits and other aspects, such as the establishment special allowance, there must be safeguards policy initiatives. Third, to attract foreign technology and talent. Management of technology heritage is a regional and international technology, we can also learn from the country, many of its peers in the technology abroad, hiring experts from outside the unit, academics as consultants, go learn, please come to learn, by others science, as I used to.
(Iv) a clear responsibility to improve protection. First, leaders must have a high degree of legal awareness and sense of responsibility, in particular to the legal representative responsible for the safety of cultural relics collection, the establishment of heritage conservation reporting system, report regularly to the competent authorities to protect the collections custody case, signed their responsibility to shape , clarify its responsibilities shouldered, with historical materialism, a pragmatic attitude towards the protection of cultural relics. Secondly, lead by example and actively participate in the protection of cultural relics in the team to actively promote the significance of holding the protection, encourage and foster a love for the cultural cause practitioners. Third, change the traditional concept of promotion ideas, to make use of their heritage value and increase the added value of museum tickets, and play social functions collections, so the museum to schools, to community, to society. Fourth, to regularly inspect and supervise the protection of custody of collections, reward and punishment, identify problems promptly resolved.
(V), improve rules and regulations, the implementation of scientific management. "Museum collections management approach" clearly stipulates that keep working to achieve a sound system, the accounts clear, precise identification, cataloging full and clear, proper storage, easy to use search. To achieve collection of scientific management, it is necessary to strengthen the research collection of scientific management theories and methods. First, to establish and improve a sound scientific management procedures. The main task of management is to receive the collection, identification, keep accounts, classification, cataloging, classification, archiving, storage, bent, drawdown, cancellation and statistics, every worker holding management procedures in strict accordance with these collections management . The second is a set of strict rules and regulations, and only sound system, due process, will it be possible to carry out an orderly collection of protection. These systems should include basic job responsibilities and keeping each specific protection rules, such as collections collection, identification, classification, disinfection, repair, replication and storage management system provides security management practices, equipment and facilities maintenance system. Meanwhile custody department to clear their responsibilities, responsibilities, division of labor, to improve the construction of custody system in process of continuous practice, continue to rectification. The third is to improve the legal awareness of all staff, with the laws and regulations to guide their operations, to the heritage, the museum should be familiar with the laws and regulations and the use of such "Cultural Relics Protection Law" and its "implementing regulations", "provincial, city , autonomous museum Work "," museum collections management approach "," Heritage Collection grading standards ". Fourth, we should actively learn modern management experience, such as the use of ISO9001 quality management system standards to protect the collections management as a "product" strictly monitored, and gradually formed documents, procedures and standardized management system. Fifth, we should give full play to the role of holding management information system, the use of database management collections, especially like to take the opportunity of the national collection of cultural relics survey to find out themselves the "real situation", the use of cultural relics collection information management system to establish and improve the collection of cultural relics.
Museum collections is the material basis of all operational activities museum, quantity and quality of the collection of the Museum of the status of the decision, the collection is the basis for the conservation and management of the museum foundation work. If you do not strengthen the protection and management of medium and small museum collections, I think not only the loss of cultural relics, more is the lack of social responsibility.